300 спартанців

300 спартанців — що вигадка, а що правда?

Американские фильмы, Кинообзоры

300 спартанців
Через три тижні відбудеться прем’єра блокбастера «300 спартанців: Розквіт імперії» (300: Rise of an Empire). Сюжет заснований на останньому коміксі Френка Міллера про царя Ксеркса. Фільм знятий режисером «Розумників» Ноамом Мурро в характерному для 300 спартанців стилі. На цей раз битва проходять на море, де грецький полководець Фемістокл хоче згуртувати всю Грецію для протистояння вторгненню перських військ під проводом царя Ксеркса, який уявив себе богом, і мстивого полководця перського флоту Артемісії. Всі події відбуваються до, під час і після тих, що мали місце бути в перших «спартанців».

У фільмі знімаються Єва Грін, Салліван Степлтон, Родріго Санторо, Каллен Мулвей, Ханс Метісон, Джек о’коннелл та інші.

Прем’єра запланована на 7 березня 2014 г.Накануне прем’єри оглядач Pravda.Ru Ігор Буккер розбирається, що правда в легенді про спартанців, а що — ні.

Одним з найпоширеніших міфів на військову тематику є легенда про 300 спартанців. Популярна в античності, вона знову стала популярна з часу наполеонівських кампаній. Незначне військове зіткнення виросло до розмірів міфу про вічне протистояння Заходу і Сходу і навіть протистояння західної демократії та східного деспотизму.

В 1793 році, коли хвиля секуляризації охопила Францію, один з містечок в передгір’ях Альп Сен-Марселлен (Saint-Marcellin) був перейменований в Фермопіли (Thermopyles). В першій чверті XIX століття знаменитий французький художник Жак-Луї Давид (Jacques-Louis David) написав картину, що зображала спартанського царя Леоніда. Великий німецький поет Фрідріх Шіллер (Friedrich von Schiller) перевів з давньогрецької на німецьку мову епітафію полеглим при Фермопілах спартанцям: «Подорожній, піди звести нашим громадянам в Лакедемоніе, що їх заповіти дотримуючись, тут ми кістьми полягли». Поет-романтик, який віддав життя в боротьбі за свободу Греції, лорд Байрон (Byron) присвятив піднесені рядки не просто грекам, а саме спартанцям.

Фрагмент фільму «300 спартанців»

Ідеалізація тоталітарного режиму дорійскої Спарти була характерна для німецьких істориків і до приходу Гітлера до влади. Під час Сталінградської битви пропагандисти Геббельса і особисто Герінг закликали солдатів 6-ї армії Паулюса битися так само хоробро, як спартанський цар Леонід зі своїм загоном. Агітаторів Третього рейху навіть не бентежило, що «нащадки» героїчних спартанців захищали не свою вітчизну, а вторглися хоча і не в Персії, але далеко на Схід. Коли 2 травня 1945 року в Мюнхені популярний нацистський історик Гельмут Берве (Helmut Berve) виголосив доповідь на тему «Спарта» і пішли заклики піти за прикладом античних героїв, це, принаймні, більше відповідало ситуації. Однак до цього часу німецькі «спартанці» безславно полягли на Східному фронті.

З настанням ери кіно інтерес до спартанцям не вичерпався — з’явилися нові кіноверсії. Але якщо в «масовому мистецтві» завжди героями виявлялися спартанці, а їх вороги не викликали ніякого співчуття, то оцінка битви при Фермопілах під час Греко-перських воєн фахівцями, навпаки, активно обговорюється. Тут немає бажання зганьбити загиблих (герої назавжди залишаються героями, особливо герої, що полягли за Вітчизну) або використовувати подвиг в непристойних пропагандистських цілях. Пропонуємо поглянути на історію Спарти з неупередженими судженнями.

300 спартанців виявилися таким же стійким мемом, як і знаменита бетховенська «Ода до радості» (An die Freude), кілька десятиліть використовувалася в якості гімну двох держав, НДР і ФРН, під час нагородження німецьких спортсменів на Олімпійських іграх. «Ода до радості», як помітив філософ Славой Жижек (Slavoj Žižek), що стала гімном Євросоюзу, була улюблена і в нацистській Німеччині, і в СРСР, і на Кубі, а також у країнах з найбільш одіозними політичними режимами. У маоїстському Китаї, де під час «культурної революції» західна музика була заборонена в принципі, тільки «Ода» Бетховена виконувалася в якості прикладу прогресивної музики.

Також по темі: Уроки истории по-голливудски. Часть 1

Описів подвигу 300 спартанців в Фермопільській ущелині в перських джерелах не знайдено. Читачам всіх часів перси малювалися загарбниками, які зазіхнули на свободу Греції. Більш того, в цьому бачилося протистояння Заходу і Сходу, а ширше — навіть протистояння західної демократії та східного варварства. Перси справді менше греків описували похід царя Ксеркса, тому нам невідома точка зору загарбників і європейський читач знайомиться виключно з позицією еллінів. Звідси, звичайно, співчуття до греків, а не до персам.

З іншого боку, якщо перси не надавали виняткового значення своїй поразці на Марафонському поле, ніяк не вплинув на їх подальші плани, то що й говорити про невеликий заминку у Фермопільської ущелини? А ось для всієї Еллади — це подія в ряду епохальних, оскільки впав міф про непереможність персів. Греки отримали десятирічну перепочинок у війні з персами після Марафонського битви, але не внаслідок своєї перемоги. Перси відволіклися на внутрішні заворушення в державі і палацові інтриги.

Видатний німецький історик Карл Юліус Белох (Karl Julius Beloch) одним з перших виступив проти ідеалізації та ідеологізації царя Леоніда. У 1893 році він писав: «Катастрофа біля Фермопіл принесла грекам безперечну користь, оскільки позбавила союзне військо від нездатного головнокомандувача і звільнила шлях людині, яка в наступному році привів їх до перемоги при Платеях». Біля цього міста в 479 до нашої ери греки, керовані спартанським царем Павсанієм і афінським стратегом Арістідом, здобули велику перемогу над персами на чолі з Мардонієм.

Імовірно, 300 спартанських воїнів були членами так званого корпусу «вершників» — добірного загону за царя під час походу. Незважаючи на назву, ця царська свита не мала ніякого відношення до спартанської кінноті. У більш віддалені часи ядро війська складала кіннота, але часи канули в Лету, а назва прижилася. Античні автори повідомляють, що чисельність загону завжди залишалася незмінною і цей загін швидкого реагування, на відміну від спартанської армії, ніколи не розпускався.

Зі спартанцями, безумовно, перебували їхні слуги — ілоти. Оскільки в битвах вони не брали участі (у вигляді виключення ілоти в рядах спартанської армії билися в битві при Платеях), їх кількість не враховувалося. Всі спроби підрахувати приблизний їх кількість залишаються умоглядними. Точно так само, як складно підрахувати загальну кількість воїнів, які приєдналися до маленького загону Леоніда. Відомо, що серед них були фокідяни, малейці та інші. Можливо, їх чисельність сягала семи тисяч осіб.

У голлівудському фільмі 1962 року перемога спартанців над елітою перської армії — загоном «безсмертних» — подана як військова хитрість. Одягнених у довгополі халати перських вояків з великими дерев’яними щитами губить вогонь. Насправді їм ніде було розвернутися в тісній ущелині, а їх списи були коротші, ніж у греків. Моральний дух і військова виучка гоплітів виявилася вище перської люті. І хоча джерела називають ім’я зрадника, що вивів персів козячою стежкою в тил грекам, цілком можливо, що самі перські шпигуни, а серед них були і горяни, могли вивідати таємний шлях.

Виходячи в похід, Леонід заздалегідь був готовий до того, що навряд чи вони повернуться назад. З ним пішли тільки ті чоловіки, у яких вже були діти. Причини безкорисливого вчинку спартанського царя кореняться не тільки в його особистому мужність і звичці підкорятися рішенням влади (тамтешні царі не були самодержцями), але більш всього в релігії. У науковій літературі неодноразово відзначалися неймовірна релігійність спартанців, їх віра в передбачення. Як зауважував Геродот, «веління божества вони вважали важливіше боргу до смертним».

Ще на самому початку війни Піфія передрекла: «Або Спартанець буде зруйнований варварами, або їх цар загине». Зазвичай дельфійський оракул давав туманні відповіді, які можна було трактувати двояко. У випадку з Леонідом відповідь виявився гранично ясний: перси (Піфія чітко позначила ворога) або повалений в прах Спарту (також вказала), або проллє сльози про смерть царя з Гераклова роду. Спартанських царів називали Гераклідами. Вважалося, що вони ведуть свій родовід від грецького героя.

«Якщо, думав Леонід, він там залишиться, то його очікує безсмертна слава і щастя Спарти не буде затьмарене, — повідомляє Геродот. — А так як він бажав здобути славу тільки одним спартанцям, то, по-моєму, найімовірніше, що цар сам відпустив союзників, а не вони залишили його з-за розбіжностей, порушивши військову дисципліну».

Кінець цієї історії овіяний міфами про те, як померли спартанці-герої. За однією версією, на чолі з Леонідом вони проникли вночі в табір персів і навіть увірвалися в намет Ксеркса. Для греків нічні бої були нехарактерні. І знову ж таки немає правил без винятку. Можливо, тут знайшли відображення практикуються спартанцями криптії, таємні вбивства ілотів ночами. Битва за тіло вбитого Леоніда, коли спартанці чотири рази звертали на втечу своїх ворогів, на думку дослідників, нагадує боротьбу троянців і греків за тіло Патрокла в 17-й книзі «Іліади». Не дивно, що остання битва, що вижили в якій не було, не могла не породити чуток, домислів і… міфів.

Текст російською тут.

73 comments

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  • Я уже посмотрел этот фильм на нормальном сайте, просто супер, не зря его так долго ждал!
    Кто ещё не видел, смотрим здесь, ребята — HD17.RU

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